Mitochondrial haplogroup M is one of seven basal sublineages (daughters) of haplogroup L3 and, along with its sister N expanded in Asia, after what is one of the most mysterious and debated episodes in human prehistory: the Out of Africa migration.

Haplogroup M is mostly found in South and East Asia, as well as Oceania. Its presence in West Eurasia and Africa is much more limited, almost totally restricted to haplogroup M1.


  • M1'20'51
    • M1 (in West Eurasia and Africa)
    • M20 (South China, Vietnam)
    • M51 (reported as mostly Indonesian, with some derived presence in Vietnam, by Min-Sheng Peng 2007, and Laos, Nepal).
  • M2 (in South Asia, see gallery below)
  • M3 (in South Asia, see gallery below)
  • M4"67 (in South Asia)
    • M4'65'67
      • M4 (see gallery below for M4a)
      • M65
      • M67
    • M18"38
      • M18 (see gallery below)
      • M38
    • M30
    • M37
    • M43
    • M45 (scattered, >10% Bharia)
    • M63
    • M64
    • M66 (Saharia)
  • M5 (in South Asia)
  • M6 (in South Asia, see gallery below)
  • M7 (in East Asia, notably M7a Japan and M7b Laos)
  • M8
    • M8a (in East Asia, notably Japan)
    • CZ (in East, Central and North Asia, NE Europe)
      • C (important among Native Americans, besides the other locations)
      • Z
  • M9 (in East Asia, specially SE Asia)
    • M9a'b
    • E (important in SE Asia specially)
  • M10 (in East Asia, Arunachal Pradesh)
  • M11 (in East Asia, Arunachal Pradesh)
  • M12'G (in East Asia)
    • M12 (Arunachal Pradesh, Orissa)
    • G (in East Asia, important in Central Asia where it makes up 20% of the mtDNA pool)
  • M13'46'61
    • M13 (China, Tibet)
    • M46 (Southeast Asia)
    • M61 (Laos, Northeast India)
  • M14 (Australia: Northern Territory/Arnhem Land)
  • M15 (Australia: Kimberly and Northern Territory/Arnhem Land)
  • M17 (SE Asia, several populations - Min-Sheng Peng 2010)
  • M21 (found among West Malaysia's Orang Asli and other SE Asians)
    • M21a
    • M21c'd
      • M21c
      • M21d (reported by Min-Sheng Peng 2010 among Cambodian/Thais, Cham people and some Indonesians)
  • M22 (West Malaysia mostly per Min-Sheng Peng 2010)
  • M23'75
    • M23 (Madagascar, Laos)
    • M75 (Southeast asia)
  • M25 (in South Asia, see gallery below)
  • M26 (Sumatra)
  • M27 (in Melanesia. Bismarks to New Caledonia)
  • M28 (in Melanesia. Bismarks to Central Polynesia)
  • M29'Q (New Guinea and Melanesia)
    • M29 (Bismarks to New Caledonia)
    • Q (New Guinea, Melanesia into Pacific as far as Fiji. Also among Kimberly Australian Aborigines)
  • M31 (in Andaman Islands, Bengal, Munda, Orissa, Saharia)
  • M32'56
    • M32 (M32a in Andaman Islands, M32c in Madagascar)
    • M56 (in South Asia)
  • M33 (in South Asia', notably: Sikkim, Rajastan', Bharia)
  • M34'57
    • M34 (in South Asia, notably: Munda, Orissa)
    • M57 (South Asia, basically to the west of M34)
  • M35 (in South Asia, specially West and SW)
  • M36 (in South Asia, notably: Jenu Kuruba of Karnataka, Bharia)
  • M39'70
    • M39 (in South Asia, very scattered)
    • M70 (South China?)
  • M40'62 (South Asia with emphasis in NE India)
    • M40 (notably: Munda, Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya tribals)
    • M62 (East Asia, Arunachal. M62b Tibet)
  • M24'41 (M24 Palawan, M41 South Asia: Center-East)
  • M42'74
    • M42 (Australian Aborigines, South Asia: Munda)
    • M74 (South China, Vietnam, South Asia: Nihal)
  • M44 (West, Central India. Minor haplogroup)
  • M47 (supposedly Southeast Asia)
  • M48 (Northeast India: Khasi)
  • M49 (Arunachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh: Bhil)
  • M50 (SE Asia: apparent origin in Indonesia, also found in other areas - Min-Sheng Peng 2010, China)
  • M52'58
    • M52 (South Asia)
    • M58 (Munda, Arunachal)
  • M19'53 (M19 Palawan, M53 South Asia: East and Center: Orissa, Chattisgarh, Nihal, Saharia)
  • M60 (NE India)
  • M71 (SE Asia: China, Cambodia, Thailand - derived in Vietnam, Indonesia - Min-Sheng Peng 2010)
  • M72 (South China, Southeast Asia)
  • M73'79 (M73 Philippines, SE Asia: two branches: one in West Malaysia and the other among the Cham - 'Min-Sheng Peng 2010'. M79 South China )
  • M76 (South China)
  • M77 (Thailand)
  • M80'D (M80 Palawan, D in East, Central and North Asia specially, important among Native Americans)

Some sub haplogroups extensionEdit


(For reference, not necessarily implemented above)


[- M]

For South Asia and Andaman islands Edit


List provided by Terry (See 'Mt M west to east')
* Chandrasekar A, Kumar S, Sreenath J, Sarkar BN, Urade BP, Mallick S, Bandopadhyay SS, Barua P, Barik SS, Basu D, Kiran U, Gangopadhyay P, Sahani R, Prasad BVR, Gangopadhyay S, Lakshmi GR, Ravuri RR, Padmaja K, Venugopal PN, Sharma MB, Rao VR. 2009. Updating phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup M in India: dispersal of modern human in South Asian corridor. PLoS ONE 4(10):e7447. [[1]]
* Tabbada KA, Trejaut J, Loo JH, Chen YM, Lin M, Mirazón-Lahr M, Kivisild T, De Ungria MC. 2010. Philippine mitochondrial DNA diversity: a populated viaduct between Taiwan and Indonesia? Mol Biol Evol 27(1):21-31.
* Peng MS, Quang HH, Dang KP, Trieu AV, Wang HW, Yao YG, Kong QP, Zhang YP. 2010. Tracing the Austronesian footprint in Mainland Southeast Asia: a perspective from mitochondrial DNA. Mol Biol Evol (Epub ahead of print).
* Zou Y, Jia X, Zhang AM, Wang WZ, Li S, Guo X, Kong QP, Zhang Q, Yao YG. 2010. The MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes are mutational hotspots for Chinese families with clinical features of LHON but lacking the three primary mutations. Biochem Biophys Res Commun (Epub ahead of print). [[2]]
* Chaubey G, Metspalu M, Karmin M, Thangaraj K, Rootsi S, Parik J, Solnik A, Rani DS, Singh VK, Naidu BP, Reddy AG, Metspalu E, Singh L, Kivisild T, Villems R. 2008b. Language shift by indigenous population: a model genetic study in South Asia. International Journal of Human Genetics 8(1-2):41-50.
* Hill C, Soares P, Mormina M, Macaulay V, Clarke D, Blumbach PB, Vizuete-Forster M, Forster P, Bulbeck D, Oppenheimer S, Richards M. 2007. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for Island Southeast Asia. Am J Hum Genet 80(1):29-43.
* Reddy BM, Langstieh BT, Kumar V, Nagaraja T, Reddy AN, Meka A, Reddy AG, Thangaraj K, Singh L. 2007. Austro-Asiatic tribes of Northeast India provide hitherto missing genetic link between South and Southeast Asia. PLoS ONE 2(11):e1141. [[3]]
* Dancause KN, Chan CW, Arunotai NH, Lum JK. 2009. Origins of the Moken Sea Gypsies inferred from mitochondrial hypervariable region and whole genome sequences. J Hum Genet 54(2):86-93.
* Kong QP, Bandelt HJ, Sun C, Yao YG, Salas A, Achilli A, Wang CY, Zhong L, Zhu CL, Wu SF, Torroni A, Zhang YP. 2006. Updating the East Asian mtDNA phylogeny: a prerequisite for the identification of pathogenic mutations. Hum Mol Genet 15(13):2076-2086.

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