Mitochondrial haplogroup R is a major haplogroup under N, widely distributed among non-Africans specially.

R is defined by transitions (in CRS direction) at sites 12705 and 16223.

Phylogeny under R:Edit

(Per PhyloTree 2010)

  • R0 (almost exclusive of West Eurasia and North Africa. Low presence in South Asia) [2]
    • R0a
      • R0a1
      • R0a2'3
    • HV
      • HV0 (incl. V)
      • HV1
      • HV2
      • HV3
      • HV4
      • HV5
      • HV6"10
        • H9: Europe (notably Sicily[12]), West Asia[13] and at least in one instance also Southern India[14].
      • H (major clade in West Eurasia and North Africa)
  • R1 (in West and South Asia, also among some Eastern Europeans)
    • R1* (Kurdistan)
    • R1a (R1a* in South Asia and also the Adygei)
      • R1a1 (Eastern Europe, specially NW Caucasus)
  • R2'JT (Low presence in South Asia.) [1] [2] [6] [7]
    • R2 (in South Asia and West Eurasia, notably Austroasiatic and Sahariya, the most northerly of the Madhya Pradesh tribals - Sharma 2012. )
    • JT (in West Eurasia mostly)
      • J (most common in Arabia Peninsula)
      • T (most common towards the Southern Caspian Sea)
  • R3 (in West Asia: AF381997 is reported by mtDNA Community as the only known R3 and is from Jordan Maca-Meyer 2001)
  • R5 (in South Asia. Across Central India except SE Coast. Especially SW coast and Sri Lanka. Present only in the most westerly of the Madhya Pradesh tribals: the Bhil. ) [1] [2]
    • R5a
  • R6 (in South Asia. uttar Pradesh, Kashmir and SE coast. Also Pakistan. Present in all three Madhya Pradesh tribals) [1] [2]
    • R6a
  • R7 (in South Asia. Especially in NE India and Andhra Pradesh. Frequent in Munda speakers. Not present in the most westerly Madhya Pradesh tribals, the Bhil, but present in the other two) [1] [2] [Chaubey 2008]
    • R7a
    • R7b
  • R8 (South Asia. Present in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra. Also especially in South India and Sri Lanka. Perhaps originated in Orissa. Not recorded in the Sahariya, the northernmost of the Madhya Pradesh tribals, but present in the other two. ) [1] [2] [6] [9]
    • R8a
    • R8b
  • R9 (in SE Asia. Looks to have spread from South China. Present, and diverse, in both Hainan and Laos.) [3] [4] [6] [7] [8] [10]
    • R9b
    • R9c
    • F
      • F1
      • F2
      • F3
      • F4
  • R11'24'B (Specially SE Asia. The three haplogroups are combined by a single control region mutation. Such mutations are considered unreliable indicators of phylogeny and so this single haplogroup could perhaps be considered three separate haplogroups. ) [3] [4] [6] [7] [8] [10]
    • R11'B6 (occasionally also in Japan and South Asia)
      • R11 (recorded in Hainan but not in Laos.)
      • B6 (Centred on South China. Recorded in Laos but not in Hainan. )
    • B4'5
      • B4 (also in all East Asia. B4a reached Polynesia while a member of B4b (B2) reached America. Both B4 and B5 are found in both Hainan and Laos, and diverse in both places. )
      • B5
    • R24 (Philippines)
  • R12'21 [10]
    • R12 (among Australian Aborigines)
    • R21 (among Orang Asli, SE Asia)
  • R14 (among Papuans, Nicobarese and in the Lesser Sunda Islands)
  • R22 (SE Asia, specially Lesser Sunda - centered in Indonesia and Nicobar per Min-Sheng Peng 2010) [8] [10]
  • R23 (Bali and Sumba) [8]
  • R30 (South Asia. Not listed in Madhya Pradesh tribals but widespread in South Asia, especially NW and Central. Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra.) [1]
    • R30a
    • R30b
  • R31 (South Asia. Of the Madhya Pradesh tribals recorded only in the Bhil, the most westerly. Present in Rajasthan, Southern India and Sri Lanka. ) [1] [2]
    • R31a
    • R31b
  • P (mostly among Australasian natives) [5] [10]
    • P1'2'10'8
      • P1 (New Guinea and Melanesia, minor presence in Australia)
      • P2'10 (P2 New Guinea, P10 Philippines)
      • P8 (Philippines)
    • P3 (P3a Australia, P3b New Guinea)
    • P4 (P4a New Guinea, P4b Australia)
    • P5 (Australia)
    • P6 (Australia)
    • P7 (Australia)
    • P9 (Australia)
  • U (major clade in and around West Eurasia. Not recorded in the Bhil of the Madhya Pradesh tribals, although U2 and U7 are the most frequent R haplogroups in South Asia, and recorded in the other two tribals. ) [2] [6] [7]
    • U1 (centered in West Asia)
      • U1a'c
      • U1b
    • U5 (West Eurasia, important in Europe)
      • U5a
      • U5b
    • U6 (North Africa, Iberia; less importantly in West Africa, East Africa, West Asia and Europe)[10]
      • U6a'b'd
        • U6a (the most common subclade)
        • U6b'd (centered in North Africa)
      • U6c (NW Africa and SW Europe)
    • U2'3'4'6'7'8'9
      • U2 (Central and South Asia specially)
      • U3 (West Asia, SE Europe, common among the Roma)
      • U4'9 (Common in Europe as U4)
      • U7 (South and West Asia)
      • U8 (incl. K, West Eurasian clade)
  • References:











11) Bernard Sechel et al, 2010.

12) De Fanti et al 2015.

13) Downloadable XLS PLoS ONE dataset (related paper unknown).

14) Commentary by South Indian carrier at For what they were...

General references:

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.